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McGinn, N. Decentralization of Education: why, When, What and How?
Mestry, R. Financial accountability: the principal or the school governing body? South African Journal of Education. Mmari, D. Decentralization for Service Delivery in Tanzania.
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Muta, H. Deregulation and decentralization of education in Japan. Naidoo, J. Education decentralization in Africa: great expectations and unfulfilled promises. In David P. Baker, Alexander W. Wiseman ed. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Education decentralization in Sub-Saharan Africa--Espoused theories and theories in use. Ouchi, W. Power to the principals: decentralization in three large school districts Organization Science.
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Ornelas, C. The politics of the educational decentralization.
Qi, T. Moving towards decentralization? International Perspectives on Education and Society. Rodden, J. Cambridge: MIT Press. Rondinelli, D. What is Decentralization?
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In Litvack, J. Seddon eds. Decentralization Briefing Notes. Washington, D.
R and Cheema, G. Decentralization in developing countries: A review of recently experience. Ross, K. Sack, R. Functional Analysis management audits of Organizations of Ministry of Education. Sasaoka, Y. Does universal primary education policy weaken decentralization? Sayed, Y. Compare, Discourses of the policy of educational decentralization in South Africa since an examination of the South African Schools Act.
Suzuki, I. Parental participation and accountability in primary schools in Uganda. Compare 32 2 : — The administrative division includes village-level administrative units called Gramasevaka Divisions, each headed by a government official known as Gramasevaka who assists the Divisional Secretary and police authorities in administrative matters and the maintenance of law and order at village level.
Each council is elected for four years on the basis of proportional representation.
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Only a limited amount of powers have been conferred upon local authorities by the central government and their financial resources are restricted. There are a lot of checks and limits on the working of local authorities. The year marked the beginning of a new era in the post-colonial political development in Sri Lanka with the introduction of a major devolution package.
Until then, the dominant tendency was towards centralization of state power. The 13 th Amendment to the Constitution and the Provincial Council Bill in together form the basis for the devolution of power to newly established regional level authorities called Provincial Councils. The Provincial Councils are elective bodies with a term of five years.
The membership of each council is determined on the basis of its land area and population with one member elected for every sq km and 40 people. The 37 subjects in List I or Provincial List have been exclusively devolved to the Provincial Councils while 36 subjects in List III or Concurrent List can be exercised concurrently by the Central Government and Provincial Councils subject to the supremacy of the centre in case of a conflict. These subjects cover all matters relating to regional development.
The main function of the Provincial Council is to approve policy decisions taken by the Board of Ministers. The Governor is the Chief Executive Officer of the Provincial Council who is appointed by the President for a period of five years and can be removed either by the President or by a resolution passed by the Council to that effect. The Governor appoints the Chief Minister and other Ministers. But in cases such as financial instability, failure of provincial administrative machinery and proclamation of the Public Security Act, the Governor can use discretionary powers with the consent and approval of the President.
The Chief Minister is the political head of the provincial executive. In normal circumstances, the Chief Minister and Board of Ministers are collectively responsible and answerable to the Provincial Council. Each Provincial Council is authorized to establish a Provincial Fund and to make appropriations from the Fund, which receives proceeds from:. Provincial Councils are empowered to set up a Provincial Public Service.
However, the councils cannot organize a provincial recruiting system and officers for the provincial administration are to be drawn from the central public service. The distinctive feature of the Provincial Councils is that they derive powers directly from the Constitution and any change to the existing framework can be effected only through an amendment to the Constitution. This would mean that the functional autonomy of the Provincial Councils is well assured.
However, there are a lot of checks and limits imposed on the Provincial Councils. The most important check is the manner by which powers and functions have been devolved to the Provincial Councils. The national parliament is still supreme with regard to the exercise of state power and, as such, the Provincial Councils are virtually subordinate to the Parliament.
The Provincial Councils have not been created on true federal principles which involve the division of political power between the centre and regional units. Only administrative powers have been conferred on the Provincial Councils. Central control is retained over the Provincial Councils through the following provisions in the Provincial Councils Act and the 13 th Constitution Amendment. Similar subjects in Provincial Council and Concurrent Lists and making central law prevail over provincial law in respect of matters in the Concurrent List. Constitutional provision pertaining to Provincial Councils can be amended by Parliament with a simple majority if all Provincial Councils agree to it or with a special majority if one or more Councils do not agree.
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Centre can enact laws in respect of any matter in the Provincial Councils List following the procedure in 4. Centre can enact laws on any subject in the Provincial Councils List on a request by a Council. Special powers with the President to regulate Provincial Councils under special circumstances such as a proclamation of Emergency, grave financial crisis and failure of the administrative machinery of Provincial Councils.
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Provincial Councils are prohibited from dealing with matters declared to be of national importance by Parliament. Provincial Councils cannot deal with the activities of public enterprises set up under a law enacted by Parliament. The purpose of these checks is to ensure that the working of the Provincial Councils is consistent with the national objectives. Yet, this has considerably weakened the functional autonomy of the Provincial Councils.
This can be seen in:. The resulting dependence of the Councils on the Central Government has been used to tighten central dominance over the former;. According to the World Bank, decentralization introduced in may have made an already difficult administrative situation worse. Abeyawardana, H. Legal environment for local government in Sri Lanka. Gunawardena, A. Provincial Councils - structure and organization. Kodikara, S.